Injuries can be classified as either chronic or acute. Chronic injuries are injuries which gradually occur with a gradual increase in pain/swelling/inflammation and occur due to constant overload. Acute injuries occur due to direct trauma and are very often very severe.
Joint injuries which involve one or more of bone, cartilage, ligaments, muscle-tendon units or the synovial membrane.
• Cartilage is plastic and capable of deformation; decreases stress by increasing load-bearing area. High impact loads lead to swelling of cartilage; if severe enough may lead to cartilage wear, or tear.
• Joint ligaments may be sprained or torn and are caused by excessive joint motion, most. Direct blows can cause stretching and permanent deformation. Total rupture and failure often due to bending and torsional loads applied to distal limb, as in a tackle.
• Bony avulsions occur at low load rates, mostly in young athletes involve cleavage of bone-ligament interface – and are rare because of its strength.
The effect of a joint injury can cause loss of stability, joint misalignment, abnormal contact pressure, loss of proprioception/balance. The most common joint injuries are those to the ankle and knee;
• ACL Knee Injury & Reconstruction – Anterior cruciate ligament rupture.
• Medial or Lateral Meniscus Tear – Torn cartilage knee injury.
• IlioTibial Band Friction Syndrome – Runner’s Knee
• LCL Knee Ligament Injury – Lateral collateral ligament injury
• MCL Knee Ligament Injury – Medial collateral ligament injury
• Osgood Schlatters
Osteoarthritis of the Knee – Knee arthritis
Osteochondritis Dissecans – Loose bone fragments in the knee joint
• Patella Fracture – Fracture of the kneecap
Patella Tendinopathy – Jumpers knee/tendonitis
• Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome – Anterior knee pain
• Patellafemoral Maltracking – Knee pain resulting from the movement of the kneecap
Chondromalacia Patella – Wear at the back of the kneecap
• Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear
• Ankle Fracture
• ATFL Injury and reconstruction – Lateral ligament injury
• CF injury and reconstruction – Lateral ligament injury
• Posterior inferior tibiofibular injury and reconstruction – Lateral ligament injury
• Deltoid injury and reconstruction – Medial ligament injury
• Tibiofibular syndesmosis disruption – Internal joint injury
• Achilles tendon Injury and reconstruction – Achilles tendon injury
• Achilles tendonitis/tendonosis/tendopathy – Inflammation of the Achilles tendon
Muscle injuries involve damage to one or more muscle groups. The muscle and muscle-tendon unit causes movement, stabilises, and absorbs energy in load transmission. Strain injuries are the most frequent, caused by stretch of muscle tendon unit, most often in eccentric contractions, especially multi-joint muscles and fatigued muscles. DOMS (delayed onset of muscle soreness) affects tendon or fascial connections in muscle after unaccustomed exercise.Direct trauma leads to intramuscular haematoma, possibly leading to calcification. Compartment syndromes, increased pressure within anatomically-confined muscle compartment, acute or chronic, latter more common.
The most common muscle injuries are injuries to the
• Adductor muscles – muscles of the groin and most commonly injuried in sports which involve twisting and turning.
• Hip flexor muscles – small muscles above at the front of the hip and commonly injured when running and kicking.
• Quadriceps muscles – these powerful muscles of the thigh are responsible for straightening the knee and are active during running, kicking and jumping.
• Hamstring muscles – these muscles are located at the back of the thigh and are commonly injured when running, particularly sprinting, twisting and tuening.
• Lumbar muscles – muscles of the lower back which are injured in contact sports and also in twisting/turning/jumping/landing.
• Thoraic muscles – Muscles of the upper back and shoulder and commonly injured in contact sports or sports involving throwing and striking.
Osteitis pubis – a medical condition which is prevalent among footballers. It is a overuse injury caused by constant trama/shearing of the pubis symphis. We specilaise in treating/prehabing and rehabing this injury as very often rest only reduces the iflammation and it can return once actvity levles are increased. It is due to large muscle imbalances, poor muscle stability and poor movement mechanics.
Disc Prolapse and herniation – damage to the discs of the back most commonly the lower back L4/L5 and L5/S!. We secilaise in treating this condition with the correct flexibility and mobility exercise for sport to prevent relapse and improving functional and sporting movement skills such as running mechanics and sprinting skills.